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Table 3 Cycling willingness index (CWI) for the different coefficient of rolling resistance (Crr) ranges. P-value representing the difference between answer distribution for opposite groups. Post-hoc indicates significant differences between answer distribution for multiple groups

From: The effect of rolling resistance on people’s willingness to cycle during wintertime

Crr level Crr range All respondents (1318) Gender P-value E-bike P-value Studded tires P-value
Female (379) Male (938) Yes (311) No (900) Yes (1084) No (127)
1 0.00–0.01 91.2% 90.7% 91.5% 0.298 92.9% 90.7% 0.029 93.5% 90.4% 0.011
2 0.01–0.02 68.8% 64.7% 70.4% 0.000 68.7% 68.8% 0.344 72.7% 60.5% 0.000
3 0.02–0.03 51.2% 43.2% 54.4% 0.000 49.9% 51.6% 0.354 55.8% 37.5% 0.000
4 0.03–0.04 28.8% 20.6% 32.1% 0.000 26.3% 29.6% 0.000 31.3% 22.6% 0.000
5 0.04–0.05 31.1% 20.6% 35.4% 0.000 28.9% 31.9% 0.014 33.8% 25.4% 0.000
6 0.05–0.06 18.3% 11.4% 21.2% 0.000 15.8% 19.1% 0.072 19.6% 16.9% 0.000
   Season specific cyclists P-value
Not cyclists (19)a Summer only (88) Year-round (1211)
1 0.00–0.01   71.4% 93.2% 0.000
2 0.01–0.02   38.1% 71.4% 0.000
3 0.02–0.03   19.7% 53.9% 0.000
4 0.03–0.04   9.5% 30.3% 0.000
5 0.04–0.05   9.7% 32.9% 0.000
6 0.05–0.06   6.6% 19.3% 0.000
   Winter cycling frequency Post-hoc
N (Never) (107) M (Monthly) (72) W (Weekly) (139) D (Daily) (1000)
1 0.00–0.01 69.0% 88.1% 90.2% 94.0% N < M, W < D
2 0.01–0.02 38.7% 58.3% 66.1% 73.1% N < M < W < D
3 0.02–0.03 21.1% 37.8% 48.1% 55.9% N < M < W < D
4 0.03–0.04 11.8% 18.1% 27.1% 31.7% N < M < W < D
5 0.04–0.05 11.0% 18.4% 25.9% 35.0% N < M < W < D
6 0.05–0.06 7.3% 7.0% 15.7% 20.7% N < M < W < D
   Location Post-hoc
S (South) (19)a N (North) (47) E (East) (723) W (West) (147) M (Middle) (274)
1 0.00–0.01   94.5% 91.1% 91.0% 93.6% E, W, M, N
2 0.01–0.02   76.6% 68.0% 62.7% 72.1% W < E < M < N
3 0.02–0.03   66.5% 50.2% 39.4% 55.4% W < E < M < N
4 0.03–0.04   45.4% 27.3% 21.2% 30.8% W < E < M < N
5 0.04–0.05   52.1% 30.2% 22.3% 30.9% W < E, M < N
6 0.05–0.06   36.2% 17.2% 13.5% 17.4% W < E, M < N
   Age Post-hoc
A (18-) (9)a B (18–35) (317) C (36–50) (591) D (51–65) (423) E (66+) (31)
1 0.00–0.01   91.5% 92.6% 89.3% 85.8% B, C, D, E
2 0.01–0.02   66.8% 69.2% 69.6% 64.5% B, C, D, E
3 0.02–0.03   48.6% 52.1% 51.9% 37.8% E < B < C, D
4 0.03–0.04   27.5% 27.7% 31.1% 22.6% E < B < C < D
5 0.04–0.05   27.8% 30.6% 34.1% 28.2% E < B < C, D
6 0.05–0.06   16.0% 18.3% 19.8% 10.3% E < B < C, D
  1. aGroups with N < 30: not included in statistical analyses. P-value < 0.05 indicates significant differences between groups