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Table 4 Soil properties of the actual highway slope at Nakayama Pass

From: Probability assessment of slope instability in seasonally cold regions under climate change

Soil properties Embankment filling Talus materials
Dry density of soil d) 1400 kg/m3 1200 kg/m3
Porosity (n) 0.47 0.53
Unfrozen thermal conductivity u) 127.04 kJ/(Day∙m∙°C) 103.7 kJ/(Day∙m∙°C)
Frozen thermal conductivity f) 132.24 kJ/(Day∙m∙°C) 135.7 kJ/(Day∙m∙°C)
Volumetric water content of soil at 0 °C (θwf) 0.15 m3/m3 0.10 m3/m3
Hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil (ks) 5.62 × 10−7 m/s 1 × 10−4 m/s
Unfrozen volumetric heat capacity u) 2237 kJ/(m3∙°C) 2398 kJ/(m3∙°C)
Frozen volumetric heat capacity f) 1624 kJ/(m3∙°C) 1392 kJ/(m3∙°C)
Effective cohesion (c’) 9.75 kPa 52 kPa
Effective angle of internal friction (ϕ’) 35° 11.36°