Skip to main content

Table 2 Types of coastal green infrastructure

From: Coastal green infrastructure to mitigate coastal squeeze

Types Definition Examples Local characteristics
Maximum:
Minimum:
Type 1
Nature reclamation
Habitat conservation and restoration are viable and may be accompanied by other measures to increase ecosystems’ ecological health and resilience. Coastal dune restoration Degree of naturalness:
Space:
Time:
Cost:
Type 2
Engineered ecosystems
Ecosystems are rehabilitated to recover critical services without reaching the complexity level of natural systems. Natural processes are allowed to modify ecosystems to a certain degree to return the system to a more natural form. Action to allow windows of opportunities for flora and fauna recovery Degree of naturalness:
Space:
Time:
Cost:
Type 3
Ecologically enhanced engineering
Traditional hard and/or soft engineering measures are modified to change physical processes, perhaps indirectly producing certain benefits from the natural processes that are maintained or adapted in imitation of natural ecosystems. Beach nourishments, artificial coral reefs. Degree of naturalness:
Space:
Time:
Cost:
Type 4
De-engineering/
Relocation
De-engineering means that hard and/or soft coastal structures are removed to recover the system and move towards more natural functioning. These actions are often accompanied by the relocation of human interests to more convenient sites and conditions. Removal of coastal defence structures, retreat of tourist infrastructure (e.g. restaurants) Degree of naturalness:
Space:
Time:
Cost: