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Table 1 Case studies of the porous asphalt pavements monitored with frost depth

From: Review of porous asphalt pavements in cold regions: the state of practice and case study repository in design, construction, and maintenance

Project Location Luleå, Sweden Durham, NH, USA Albertville, MN, USA Robbinsdale, MN, USA
Year of Construction 1993/1994 2004 2008/2009 2009/2010
Application Residential Street Parking Lot MnROAD Low-Volume Road Test Loop Low-volume residential Intersections
Comparison with Impermeable Pavement Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pavement Structure 4.5 cm PA 10.2 cm PA 15.2 cm PA 10.2 cm PA
3 cm Choker 10.2 cm Choker 10.2 cm Choker (RailRoad Ballast) 5.1 cm Choker
60 cm or 100 cm
Stone Reservoir with underdrain pipes
61 cm Filter Course 25.4 cm Stone Reservoir (Crushed CA-15) 30.5 cm Stone Reservoir with 15.2 cm overflow draintile below the top of the reservoir
53.3 cm Stone Reservoir with 15.2 cm underdrain pipes
Geotextile Geotextile Geotextile &vertical plastic barriers geotextile
Total Thickness 67.5 cm or 107.5 cm 134.7 cm 50.8 cm 45.8 cm
Subgrade Soil Silty Moraine (Frost Susceptible) Combination of infill and hydrologic soil group C soils Sand (Cell 86) Clay (Cell 88) Sand (41st Ave. North) Clay (27th Ave. North)
Permeability of Subgrade Soil 0.06 to 2.4 mm/min. 0.025–0.24 mm/min. (Hydrologic Group C Soils, [17]) Highly drainable (Not tested) 0.16 mm/min. >  0.63 mm/min. Not Reported
Year/Max. Frost Depth 1994/95: 110 cm
1995/96: 140 cm
03/2005: 30.5 cm
01–03/2006: 24.4 cm
11/2006–04/2007: 69.9 cm
11/2007–04/2008: 34.3 cm
11/2010–04/2011: 61–91.4 cm 11/2010–04/2011: 91.4–121.9 cm >  43.2 cm (43.2 cm is the lowest temperature testing location)
Frost Heave Uniformly distributed
1–2 cm for 100 cm Base
4–8 cm for 60 cm Base
Not visually observed Appeared to heave seasonally noted by MnROAD personnel Not Reported
Pavement Early Distresses No observed frost damage due to irregular frost heave Sharp steel edges of snowplows; minor surface raveling; higher rut depth; no visible cracks; No visual distress Some signs of excess binder
Resources Bäckström [8] Briggs [9]
Holue [23]
Roseen et al. [49]
Roseen et al. [50]
Lebens and Troyer [32]
Weiss et al. [62]
Wenck Associates [64]
Weiss et al. [62]