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Table 2 Some identified application scenarios of VII system

From: More than smart pavements: connected infrastructure paves the way for enhanced winter safety and mobility on highways

Application Type Application Scenario Reference
Safety Cooperative-ITS platform: advance warning of hazardous road situations (to vehicle drivers) Padarthy and Heyns [23]
V2X applications for roadway safety and vehicle safety Abboud et al. [30]; FHWA [64]
Intersection collision warning, emergency vehicle pre-emption, work zone alerts, curve speed warning, railroad crossing violation warning Barbaresso and Johnson [65]
In-vehicle signage, oversize vehicle warning, red-light or stop-sign violation warning, reduced speed zone warning/lane closure, restricted lane warning, spot weather impact warning Iteris [66]
Cooperative collision avoidance Chowdhury et al. [67]; Wang and Li [68]
Blind spot warning and lane change warning Theriot et al. [69]; Howe et al. [70]
ADAS functionalities Liu et al. [71]
Pedestrian detection and warning He and Zeng [72]
Deer crossing road detection: with multiple roadside LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors deployed to enable real-time, micro-level and high-resolution sensing of road users Wu [6]
Mobility Coordinated truck platooning Gungor and Al-Qadi [73]; Gungor and Al-Qadi [73]
Traffic management and sustainable travel Li et al. [76]; Gopalakrishna, et al. [77]; Iteris [8]
Advanced traveler information system, corridor management, transit vehicle priority, and multimodal intelligent traffic signal system Barbaresso and Johnson [65]
V2X applications for vehicle traffic optimization Abboud et al. [30]
Incident detection and response; traffic queue or bottleneck detection; traffic network flow optimization Khazraeian [78]; Chowdhury et al. [67]
Emergency vehicle priority Head [79]
Adaptive signal control Yao et al. [80]
Cooperative adaptive cruise control Huang et al. [81]
Dynamic routing support Genders and Razavi [82]
Smart DMS, routing support and data-driven apps for freight carriers, transit vehicles and emergency responders Iteris [66]; Akin et al. [83]
Road weather V2X applications for motorist advisories and warnings, information for maintenance and fleet management systems, and MDSS Barbaresso and Johnson [65]; Young et al. [84]; FHWA [64]
Agency Data V2I applications for probe-based traffic monitoring, probe-based pavement condition monitoring, and performance measures Barbaresso and Johnson [65]; FHWA [9]; Li et al. [85, 86]
Other V2X applications for passenger infotainment (via in-vehicle Internet access) and car manufacturer services (e.g., point-of-interest notification and remote vehicle diagnostics). Abboud et al. [30]
Value-added services by commercial application developers Chapman and Drobot [10]